Text 9.3. The London to Brighton Vintage Car Rally




Read the text paying attention to the expression have / has / had to.

“Vintage” cars have to be more than fifty years old and in very good condition. Lots of people keep or collect vintage cars. And on the first Sunday in November there’s a race or “rally” for them. It starts in London and it finishes in Brighton, a town on the south coast of England. That’s a distance of seventy kilometers.

Before 1896 a man with a red flag had to walk in front of cars. In 1896 that changed. A group of happy drivers broke their flags and drove to Brighton. There they had a party. Now the rally is a sporting tradition.

A lot of the people in the rally wear “vintage” clothes, too. In a 1910 car, for example, the driver and passengers wear 1910 hats and coats.

Exercise 9.3.1.Make the following sentences negative and interrogative.

1. “Vintage” cars have to be more than fifty years old.

2. A man with a red flag had to walk in front of cars.

3. There they had a party.

4. A driver has to show his driver’s license to the policeman.

5. People have to keep their vintage cars in good condition.

6. Passengers had to wear old-fashioned hats and coats.

7. We have seen the parade of old cars.

Revision 3

3.1.Put the verbs into the Past Simple or the Past Perfect.

1. By the time I ______ (come), all the other students _______ (already, write) the test.

2. I ______ (go) to London on business two years ago. I ______ (visit) it twice before that time so I ______ (have) some good friends to stay with.

3. He told me a lot about his childhood. He ______ (live) with his grandparents in the countryside. They ______ (have) a small house there.

4. When the rescue workers ______ (arrive), most of the passengers ______ (lose) their lives.

5. In Thailand, I ______ (try) many dishes I ______ (never, eat) before.

6. When he ______ (arrive) at work, he realized that he ______ (not turn off) the burner at home.

7. I ______ (take) my bag, ______ (switch off) the lights and ______ (leave) the flat.

8. When I ______ (introduce) my friend, she ______ (smile) and ______ (say) they ______ (already, meet) somewhere.

9. When I ______ (come back) to my office, I ______ (find) a strange note. Someone ______ (leave) it on the table. However, my secretary told me that no one ______ (enter) the office while I ______ (be) out.

3.2.Translate from Russian into English. Use the Future Simple Tense where necessary.

1. Оптимисты считают, что мы будем ездить на машинах, которые будут работать на воде, а не на бензине.

2. Пессимисты боятся, что машины станут меньше и у них не будет кондиционеров.

3. Некоторые считают, что через 100 лет дома будут выше и в них будет много квартир, потому что на Земле будет очень много людей.

4. Я уверен, что футбол будет одной из самых популярных игр даже через двести лет. Но, возможно, некоторые правила изменятся.

5. Он не будет участвовать в соревнованиях, так как у него травма (trauma).

6. Где будет проходить конференция?

7. Я буду свободен в субботу вечером. Пойдёшь со мной в кино?

8. Думаю, он поможет тебе. Завтра у него будет выходной (day off), так что у него будет много времени.

3.3.Give some advice to students who are going to take an exam. What should they do to pass? What shouldn’t they do? Write at least 5-6 sentences.

Example:

You should revise for an exam regularly.

You should answer your best question first. It will give you more confidence.

You shouldn’t look at the people around you.

3.4.Think of the rules which are accepted at your university. What do you have to do as a student? What mustn’t you do? Write at least 5-6 sentences.

Example:

I have to do my homework regularly.

I mustn’t be late for class.

I have to wear formal clothes.

3.5.Try to remember your childhood. What could you do at the age of 10? What couldn’t you do? Which of these things can you do now?

Example:

I could ride a bike when I was 10.

I couldn’t swim when I was 10, but now I can.

I couldn’t drive a car, and I still can’t.

Unit 10. The Passive Voice

The Present Simple Passive

am

is + V3

are

+ This novel is written by a famous writer.

– This novel is not written by a famous writer.

? Is the novel written by a famous writer?

Exercise 10.1.1.Read the definitions of the games. Give your own definitions:

1. Cricket is a game played by two teams of 11 players who get points by hitting a ball with a bat and running between two sets of sticks called stumps.

2. Squash is a game in which two players use rackets to hit a small ball against a wall.

3. Croquet is a game played on grass in which players hit balls through hoops. Hoops are small metal gates.

4. The rules of snooker are not the same as those of billiards.

5. Football is a game…

6. Figure skating ……..

7. ……

8……..

Text 10.1.1. Sports in Britain.

Exercise 10.1.1.1.Learn the words below and write your own sentences using the Passive Voice:

a sports-loving nation нация, любящая спорт

soccer футбол

rugby регби

squash сквош

snooker снукер (разновидность бильярда)

rules правила

yachting яхтенный спорт

horse-racing скачки

to originate from зародиться в

to take part in принимать участие в

angling рыболовство

darts дротики

a contest состязание

to draw up the rules разработать правила

Football League Футбольная лига

to win the World Cup выиграть Кубок мира

to hold a tournament проводить турнир

to be a part of everyday life быть частью повседневной жизни

to be invented быть изобретенным

to be interested интересоваться

to be known быть известным

to be on the programme of входить в программу чего-либо

Exercise 10.1.1.2. Read and translate the text. Pay attention to the sentences in the Passive voice.

Sports in Britain.

The British are a sports-loving nation. Cricket, soccer, rugby, tennis, squash, table tennis, badminton, canoeing and snooker were all invented in Britain. The first rules for such sports as boxing, golf, hockey, yachting and horse-racing also originated from Britain. The most popular sports that people take part in, rather than watching, are angling, snooker and darts.

Cricket is very much the English game. It is often played in schools, colleges, universities and by club teams all over the country. Summer isn’t summer without cricket. To many Englishmen cricket is both a game and a standard of behaviour.

When they consider anything unfair they sometimes say: “That isn’t cricket.”

Football at the beginning was a contest between neighbouring villages – with no limit to the number on each side, no fixed pitch and almost no rules. The Football association drew up the rules of the modern game in 1863 and in 1888 twelve clubs joined together to form the first Football League. England won the World Cup in 1966. Today football is the game that attracts the greatest attention.

Next to football, the chief spectator sport in Britain life is horse-racing. A lot of people are interested in the races and risk money on the horse, which they think will win The Derby. It is perhaps the most famous single sporting event in the world.

Golf was probably invented in Holland, but today it is one of the most popular games in Britain, especially in Scotland.

A great number of people play and watch tennis. Tennis tournaments at

Wimbledon are known all over the world. The innumerable tennis courts of Britain

are occupied by people between the ages of 16 and 60 who show every degree of skill– from practically helpless to extremely able.

There are a lot of sports and games, which are popular both among youngster sand grown-ups. 25 million of grown-up people take part in sports. Sport is on the programme of all state and private schools and universities. Indeed, sport is a part of everyday life in Britain.

Exercise 10.1.3.Insert the prepositions where necessary:

1. Cricket was invented … Britain.

2. The first rules … hockey originated … Britain.

3. There are a lot of sports and games which are popular both… youngsters and grown-ups.

4. Sport is a part …everyday life … Britain.

5. Cricket is often played … schools, colleges and … club teams all over the country.

6. England won the World Cup … 1966.

7. A great number … people play and watch tennis

Exercise 10.1.4.Answer the following questions using the negative sentences if necessary:

1. Are the British a beer-loving nation?

2. Are hockey and volleyball the most popular sports in Britain?

3. Was golf invented in Britain?

4. Was football a contest between neighbouring villages?

5. Are sports on the programme of all state schools?

Exercise 10.1.5.Translate into English.

1. Британцы - это нация, любящая спорт.

2. Самые популярные виды спорта, которыми люди занимаются, а не

наблюдают, это рыбная ловля, бильярд и «дротики».

3. Крикет - это типично английская игра.

4. Спорт входит в программу всех государственных, частных школ и

университетов.

5. Спорт - это часть повседневной жизни Британии.

The Past Simple Passive

Was

+ V3

Were

+ The first Olympic Games were held in Greece.

– The first Olympic Games were not held in Greece.

? Were the first Olympic Games held in Greece?

Text 10.2.1 Read and translate the text. Pay attention to the sentences in the Passive voice.

The Olympic Games

In 776 ВС the first Olympic Games were held at the foot of Mount Olympus to honour the Greek's chief God, Zeus. The Greeks emphasized physical fitness and strength in their education of youth. Therefore contests in running, jumping, discus and javelin throwing, boxing and horse and chariot racing were held in individual cities, and the winners competed every four years at Mount Olympus. Winners were greatly honoured by having olive wreaths placed on their heads and having poems

sung about their deeds. Originally these were held as games of friendship, and any wars in progress were halted to allow the games take place.

The Greeks attached so much importance to these games that they calculated time in four-year cycles called «Olympiads».

In 394 AD the Games were abolished and we're not renewed until many centuries later.

Renewal of the Games came in 1896, when the first modern Olympic Games were held in Athens due to the French educator Baron Pierre de Coubertin, The first Olympiad was held in Athens and followed the pattern set by the ancient Olympic Games. Some events, like marathon race, have been added, and the inclusion of women, and also the series of winter sports. Otherwise, the framework elaborated for the first Games, has stood the test of time. The modern Games have maintained the original ideal of amateurism.

In 1896 the International Olympic Committee was set up. It is the central policymaking body of the Olympic movement, formed by the representatives of participant countries. The IOC makes the ultimate decision as to the program of the Games, the number of participants and as to where the Games of the next Olympiad are to be held. The Games are allocated to a city, not to a country. Over 150 countries are represented in the IOC at present.

Much importance is attached to the opening ceremony. At the opening of the Games the International Olympic Committee appears as a host. The national anthem of the host country is played, and all the participants march past the Lodge of Honour. The Head of the host country declares the Games open, then the Olympic flag is raised and the Olympic hymn is sung. Then the Olympic flame is lit that will burn till the end of the Games. The Olympic torch has been carried from Olympia by torch bearers, one for each kilometer, about 340 in all. The Olympic flag has five coloured interlaced rings, representing the five parts of the world, on a white background. The motto of the Olympic Games is «Citius, Altius, Fortius» (Faster, Higher, Stronger).

Russia joined the Olympic movement in 1952. Since then, Soviet sportsmen and sportswomen have collected a great lot of gold, silver and bronze medals, not to 1980 Moscow hosted the 22 Olympic Games.

The importance of the Olympic Games was well expressed by Coubertin: «The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win, but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle».

Vocabulary:

to honour Zeus в честь Зевса

physical fitness and strength хорошая физическая форма и сила

a contest in throwing

discus and javelin соревнования по метанию диска и

копья

horse and chariot racing гонки на колесницах

to compete соревноваться

to honour winners чествовать победителей

to attach much importance to придавать большое значение

Exercise 10.2.1.1.Answer the questions.

1. What is the history of the ancient Olympic Games?

2. How and when were the Olympic Games renewed?

3. What were the first modern Olympic Games characterized by?

4. What are the functions of the International Olympic Committee?

5. How were the winter Games introduced?

6. What is the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games and the Olympic flag?

7. What role does Russia play in the Olympic Games?

8. What did Pierre de Coubertin say about the importance of the Olympic Games?

Exercise 10.2.1.2. Insert the correct word.

1. The first Olympic Games were held at the foot of Mount Olympus to honour the Greek’s chief God ______.

2. In 1986 the International Olympic _________ was set up.

3. The Head of the _______ country declares the Games open.

4. The _________ of the Olympic Games is “Faster, Higher, Stronger”.

5. In 1980 _______ hosted the 22 Olympic Games.

Exercise 10.2.1.3. Translate into English.

1. Древние греки придавали большое значение физической форме.

2. Древние Олимпийские Игры проводились в честь Зевса.

3. Древние Олимпийские Игры включали соревнования по метанию диска и молота и многие другие виды соревнований.

4. Когда Олимпийские Игры были возобновлены, за модель были взяты древние Олимпиады.

5. Дух любительского спорта древних олимпиад прошел проверку временем.

6. Был основан МОК, центральный орган, определяющий политику Олимпийского движения.

7. Когда МОК принимает окончательное решение о месте проведения Олимпийских Игр, он определяет город, а не страну-хозяйку Олимпиады.

8. После вступления в Олимпийское движение, российские спортсмены собрали огромное количество медалей и установили огромное количество рекордов.

Exercise 10.2.1.4. Check your memory.

What can you say about the history of the Olympic Games?

What can you say about the International Olympic Committee?

What can you say about the opening ceremony?

The Future Simple Passive

Will be + V3

+ The next Olympic Games will be held in….

– The next Olympic Games will not be held in….

? Will the next Olympic Games be held in…?



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